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外汇交易

外匯交易FX是什麼?

Nail Primer vs Base Coat

Historical Cost

In accounting, the historical cost of an asset refers to its purchase price or its original monetary value. Based on the historical cost 外匯交易FX是什麼? principle, the transactions of a business tend to be recorded at their historical costs. The 外匯交易FX是什麼? concept is in conjunction with the cost principle, which emphasizes that assets, equity investments, and liabilities should be recorded at their respective acquisition costs .

Historical Cost

It is relatively easy to 外匯交易FX是什麼? retrieve the original cost of an asset, provided records were kept. Trade, sales, or purchase documentation are used to determine the historical cost of an asset. However, it is important to know that the historical cost may not necessarily be a true reflection of the 外匯交易FX是什麼? fair value of an asset.

The value of an asset is likely to deviate from its original purchase price over time. An example would be the acquisition of a block of offices valued at $5,000,000. The acquisition was made 15 years ago; however, in the current market, the building is worth over $12,000,000.

Summary

  • The historical cost of an asset refers to its purchase price or its original monetary value.
  • Based on the historical cost principle, the transactions of a business tend to be recorded at their historical costs.
  • The principle states that a company or business must account for and record all assets at the original cost or purchase price in their balance sheet, and it also applies to liabilities.

The Historical Cost Principle

The historical cost principle states that a company or business must account for and record all assets at the original cost or purchase price on their balance sheet . No adjustments are made to reflect fluctuations in the market or changes resulting from inflationary fluctuations. The historical cost principle forms the foundation for an ongoing trade-off between usefulness and reliability of an asset.

Without necessary adjustments, the historical price of an asset is still reliable, although not 外匯交易FX是什麼? entirely useful in the long term. Knowing that a company might have bought an office 外匯交易FX是什麼? building for $5,000,000 15 years ago, does not provide an overview of the current fair value of an asset. As such, the fair market value of the asset will prove to be more useful; however, since fair market values are up to assumption and are subjective, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is adamant on using the historical cost principle, as it is objective and reliable.

The historical cost principle also applies to liabilities. For example, debt instruments are recorded in the balance sheet at their original cost price.

Illustrative Example

Julius owns an investment firm that has acquired various properties across southern America. Assuming that inflation levels across the region have doubled over the recent years, the property investments are not worth anything close to what Julius spent on acquisition.

The historical cost principle does not account for adjustments due to currency fluctuations; hence, the financial statements will still record the value of the asset at the cost of purchase.

Adjusting Historical Costs

In accordance with the accounting principle of conservatism, Assets recorded at historical cost must be adjusted to account for the wear and tear through their usage.. For fixed and long-term assets, a depreciation expense is used to reduce the value of the assets over their useful life. In the case where the value of an asset has been impaired, such as when a piece of machinery becomes obsolete, an impairment charge MUST be taken to bring the recorded value of the asset to its net realizable value.

There are other ways to assign costs to assets. The historical cost of an asset is different from its inflation-adjusted cost or its replacement cost. The replacement cost is the current value one would pay to acquire a similar asset, and the inflation-adjusted cost is the upward or positive adjustment of the acquisition cost of an asset from the time of purchase, relative to changes in inflation.

Some assets must be recorded on the balance sheet using fair value accounting or at their market price. These are typically short term assets located in the current asset portion of the balance sheet. An example of a current asset is marketable investments. Recording these assets at market price is important as it shows a more accurate value of what the company would receive if they were sold immediately.

Related Readings

Thank you for reading CFI’s guide to Historical Cost. To keep advancing your career, the additional resources below will be useful:

Nail Primer vs Base 外匯交易FX是什麼? Coat – Which One Should You Use

Nail Primer vs Base Coat

Nail Primer vs Base Coat

In this article, I will be comparing both Base Coats and Nail Primers to help you to more accurately understand when and how to properly use them.

Is a Base Coat the same as a Nail Primer?

Base Coats and Nail Primers are both used to make your manicures last longer. But both of them work differently and are used with different products.

Nail Primers are generally used to treat the surface of your nails to make your acrylic 外匯交易FX是什麼? or nail polish adhere better to your nail plates.

Nail primers usually work by either:

1- Dehydrating your nails to remove moisture and oil on the surface of your 外匯交易FX是什麼? nails allowing your acrylics or polish to adhere better.

2- Covering the surface of your nails with a thin coat of a super sticky layer, which acts like glue holding 外匯交易FX是什麼? your acrylics or polish onto our nails.

3- Creating microscopic tears and holes on your nail plates allowing the acrylics and polishes to grip onto the nails better.

Whilst a Base Coat is a type of clear coat of polish applied to your nails to make your gel or regular nail polish last longer.

Base Coats are very similar 外匯交易FX是什麼? to polishes except they contain plasticizers to make them more flexible and higher levels of cellulose to make them adhere better. Citation.

When Do You Use a Base Coat

Base Coats are usually used as the first coat of polish before applying your gel polish or regular nail polish.

When Do You Use a Nail Primer

Nail Primers are used to treat your nails before applying acrylics but they can be used when applying gel or 外匯交易FX是什麼? 外匯交易FX是什麼? regular polishes.

Though I don’t advocate using a nail primer when applying gel polish 外匯交易FX是什麼? or regular polishes unless you are prone to peeling or chipping.

This is because nail primers are harsh chemicals that should only be used when they are truly necessary like when applying acrylics or when you are prone to peeling or chipping.

Advantages of Nail Primers

Nail Primers are much better at making your acrylics, gel polish or regular polish adhere to your nails when compared to just a plain base coat.

Nail primers can be used with most products such as acrylics, gel polishes, and regular polishes.

Advantages Of Base Coats

1- Does Help to Extend the Life Of Your Manicures

Base Coats can help to make your gel and regular polishes last longer; by providing a better foundation for them to adhere to.

And by making your polishes more flexible allowing them to bend rather than break.

2- Can Prevent Staining

Some brands of the base coats protect your natural nails from being stained by dyes in your polishes.

If you notice that your natural nails have a yellowish tinge, you should invest in a good base coat with stain preventing properties.

OPI Base Coat is pretty good and would protect your nails from being stained, you can click here to see the price on Amazon.

3- Promote Healthier Nails

Base Coats promote stronger and healthier natural nails they do so by forming a protective coating over them, shielding your nails from the harsher chemicals in your polish.

Some brands of the base coats even contain vitamins, nutrients, and even moisturizers to keep your natural nails in better condition.

Can You Use a Nail Primer & Base Coat Together

Using a nail primer in conjunction with a base coat will allow your gel polish or regular polishes to be extremely durable.

But I don’t advise using both unless your nails are prone to chipping and lifting.

Can You Use a Base Coat as a Primer for Acrylic Nails

Base Coats are meant to be used with gel polishes and regular polishes not for acrylics.

When applying acrylic nails it is advisable to use nail primers and nail dehydrators.

If you want to learn more about Nail Primers and Nail dehydrators you can click here to read my buyer’s guide on nail primers where I will explain the various types and when and how to use them.

外匯交易FX是什麼?

換匯換利

換匯換利交易(Cross Currency Swap或CCS)係一種管理匯率及利率風險的工具,交易雙方於期初交換兩種幣別的本金,並在約定期間內(市場慣例為1年以上)定期交換衍生出來的利息,到期時再以相同匯率換回本金。

甲公司發行一檔3年期美元1,000萬公司債,票面利率為6M Libor + 100 bps,每半年付息一次,從公司債投資人取得之資金將用於新台幣資本支出,因預期美國經濟復甦,美元利率將上升,美元亦可能持續走強,可和本行承作USD/TWD CCS規避利率及匯率風險。

CCS敘作條件:契約期間3年,名目本金美元1,000萬,USD/TWD即期匯率30.5,期初期末皆交換本金,甲公司每半年從本行收取美元浮動利息6M Libor+100 bps,並支付新台幣固定利率1.20%(年利率)給本行。透過CCS交易甲公司將鎖定發債成本為新台幣固定利率1.20%。

MQTT教學(一):認識MQTT

MQTT是由IBM的Andy Stanford-Clark博士和Arcom(已更名為Eurotech)的Arlen Nipper博士於1999年發明的通訊協定。他們當時是為了在狹窄的網路頻寬和微小電力損耗的需求前提之下,提供石油管線感測器和人造衛星之間一個輕量、可靠的二進制通訊協定。2011年11月,IBM和Eurotech將MQTT協定捐贈給負責管理開放原始碼專案的Eclipse基金會,並且加入Eclipse M2M Industry工作組織。2014年十月,MQTT正式變成一個開放的OASIS國際標準(Organization Advancement Structured Information Standards,資訊標準架構促進會,一個制定電子商務、網路服務和電子出版的非營利機構)。

MQTT最初代表的意思是Message Queueing Telemetry Transport(訊息佇列遙測傳輸),現在已經不用這種說法,MQTT就是MQTT,不是其他單字的縮寫。由於MQTT協定的訊息內容很精簡,非常適合用於處理器資源及網路頻寬有限的物聯網裝置,再加上已經有許多MQTT程式庫被陸續開發出來,用於Arduino控制板(C/C++)、JavaScript(Node.js, Espruino控制板), Python,…等等,還有開放原始碼的MQTT伺服器,使得開發MQTT物聯網、機器之間(Machine-to-Machine, M2M)的通訊變得非常簡單。Facebook Messenger的即時通訊也是用MQTT協定。

比較HTTP和MQTT通訊協定

比較HTTP和MQTT通訊協定

HTTP POST訊息

除了HTTP請求指令以及代表21度的訊息本體,這段訊息中間夾帶了一堆描述用戶端的的標頭(header)資訊,相當於向伺服器介紹:我來自Chrome瀏覽器、作業系統是Android 7、我讀懂中文和英文…等等。這些額外的標頭訊息在許多物聯網通訊應用不僅僅是多餘的,還會佔用網路頻寬、記憶體並且浪費處理時間。

MQTT訊息格式

傳送溫度值的MQTT訊息

不同於HTTP的標頭採用文字描述,MQTT的標頭採用數字編碼,整個長度只佔2位元組,等同兩個字元,後面跟著訊息的主題(topic)內容(payload),實際格式如下:

MQTT訊息格式

MQTT標頭裡的訊息類型品質…等內容,留待下文說明。除了精簡的標頭,讀者可以發現,MQTT的標頭區並沒有標示傳送目標的IP位址。

MQTT的Publisher, Broker和Subscriber

根據MQTT 3.1.1版本規格書的描述,MQTT是一種基於「發布∕訂閱」機制的訊息傳輸協定(MQTT is a Client Server publish/subscribe messaging transport protocol),我們可以把它想成雜誌發行和訂閱的機制。MQTT訊息發送端,相當於雜誌出版社,雜誌出版之後並不直接寄給消費者,而是交給經銷商或者書店一般的代理人(broker),來統籌管理發行和訂閱事宜。每一個訊息來源(刊物)都有個唯一的主題名稱(刊物名稱)。

代理人是個伺服器軟體,向伺服器發送主題的一方是發布者(publisher),從伺服器獲取主題的一方則是訂閱者(subscriber)。以下圖為例,傳送感測器資料的一邊是發布者,接收感測器資料的一邊則是訂閱者。每個感測器∕微控器的訊息都需要有個主題名稱以利識別,像下圖的主題A、B和C。

MQTT的Publisher, Broker和Subscriber

MQTT的主題(Topic)名稱

MQTT主題名稱是UTF-8(萬國碼)編碼的字串,我們可以自行決定主題名稱,例如,傳送溫度的訊息主題可命名成「溫度」、傳送亮度的訊息主題叫做「照度」…等等。主題名稱也支援類似檔案路徑的階層式命名方式,假設住家裡面有許多感測器,我們可依照測器所在位置,規劃如下的命名階層結構: